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Ultrasonic sensors overcome many of the weaknesses of IR sensors - they provide distance measurement regardless of color and lighting of obstacles.
They also provide lower minimum distances and wider angles of detection to gaurantee that obstacles are not missed by a narrow sensor beam.
THIS particular model is an upgrade from the lower precision HC-SRO4. This has 5 pins and can be used in 1-pin trigger/echo or 2-pin.
Check the datasheet for details and graphs but these are the highlights:
10 uS digitalpulse
DIGITALand directly proportional with range. See our conversion formula above.
2cm to ~4.5m
4.5V to 5.5V
10 to 40mA
5-pin maleconnector which can plug directly into breadboards.
Measurement Procedure & Formula
Distance measurements can be made with microcontrollers in a straightforward manner:
You can find an Arduino Library with code here: http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?topic=106043.0
When the Echo Pin goes low, record the elapsed time from the timer and use the following conversion formula:
Distance (in cm) = (elapsed time * sound velocity (340 m/s)) / 100 / 2
Note: we divide distance by 2 because the sensor returns the round trip time, which doubles the distance measurement.
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